Tuesday, 18 August 2015

Lets Collaborateee with Information !

Chapter 7 - Information

What is Information?

Information is everywhere in an organization

Information is stored in databases

Database – maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)

Relational Database Fundamentals

Database models include:
Hierarchical database model – information is organized into a tree-like structure (using parent/child relationships) in such a way that it cannot have too many relationships

Network database model – a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships

Relational database model – stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables

Entities and Attributes

Entity – a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored
The rows in each table contain the entities
In Figure 7.1 CUSTOMER includes Dave’s Sub Shop and Pizza Palace entities

Attributes (fields, columns) – characteristics or properties of an entity class
The columns in each table contain the attributes
In Figure 7.1 attributes for CUSTOMER include Customer ID, Customer Name, Contact Name

Keys and Relationships

Primary keys and foreign keys identify the various entity classes (tables) in the database

Primary key – a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
Foreign key – a primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables

Relational Database Advantages

Database advantages from a business perspective include :

Increased flexibility
Increased scalability and performance
Reduced information redundancy
Increased information integrity (quality)
Increased information security

Increased Flexibility

A well-designed database should:
Handle changes quickly and easily
Provide users with different views
Have only one physical view
Physical view – deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
Have multiple logical views
Logical view – focuses on how users logically access information 

Increased Scalability and Performances

A database must scale to meet increased demand,  while maintaining acceptable performance levels

Scalability – refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
Performance – measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction

Reduced Information Redundancy 

Databases reduce information redundancy
Redundancy – the duplication of information or storing the same information in multiple places 

Inconsistency is one of the primary problems with redundant information

Increase Information Integrity

Information integrity – measures the quality of information

Integrity constraint – rules that help ensure the quality of information
Relational integrity constraint
Business-critical integrity constraint 

Increased Information Security

Information is an organizational asset and must be protected

Databases offer several security features including:
Password – provides authentication of the user
Access level – determines who has access to the different types of information 
Access control – determines types of user access, such as read-only access

Database Management System

Database management systems (DBMS) – software through which users and application programs interact with a database

Data Driven Websites

Data-driven Web sites – an interactive Web site kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers through the use of a database

Data Driven Website Business Advantages

Content Management
Future Expandability
Minimizing Human Error
Cutting Production and Update Costs
More Efficient
Improved Stability

Integrating Information among Multiple Databases

Integration – allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other
Forward integration – takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes
Backward integration – takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes


Monday, 17 August 2015

Welcome for the chapter 5 : Organizational Structures that Support Strategic Initiatives

What is the meaning of Organizational Structures?

Organizational employees must work closely together to develop strategic initiatives that create competitive advantages

Ethics and security are two fundamental building blocks that organizations must base their businesses upon

IT Roles and Responsibilities are :-

Information technology is a relatively new functional area, having only been around formally for around 40 years
Recent IT-related strategic positions:

  • Chief Information Officer (CIO)
  • Chief Technology Officer (CTO)
  • Chief Security Officer (CSO)
  • Chief Privacy Officer (CPO)
  • Chief Knowledge Office (CKO)

Chief Information Officer (CIO) – oversees all uses of IT and ensures the strategic alignment of IT with business goals and objectives

Broad CIO functions include:

Manager – ensuring the delivery of all IT projects, on time and within budget
Leader – ensuring the strategic vision of IT is in line with the strategic vision of the organization
Communicator – building and maintaining strong executive relationships

Chief Technology Officer (CTO) – responsible for ensuring the throughput, speed, accuracy, availability, and reliability of IT

Chief Security Officer (CSO) – responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems

Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) – responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information 

Chief Knowledge Office (CKO) - responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing the organization’s knowledge

The Gap Between Business Personnel and IT Personnel :-

Business personnel possess expertise in functional areas such as marketing, accounting, and sales  

IT personnel have the technological expertise  

This typically causes a communications gap between the business personnel and IT personnel

Improving Communications :-

Business personnel must seek to increase their understanding of IT

IT personnel must seek to increase their understanding of the business

It is the responsibility of the CIO to ensure effective communication between business personnel and IT personnel

Ethics and security are two fundamental building blocks that organizations must base their businesses on to be successful 

In recent years, such events as the Enron and Martha Stewart, along with 9/11 have shed new light on the meaning of ethics and security

Ethics – the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people

Privacy is a major ethical issue
Privacy – the right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your own personal possessions, and not to be observed without your consent

Issues affected by technology advances:-

Intellectual property
Fair use doctrine
Pirated software
Counterfeit software

Intellectual property - Intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form

Copyright - The legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, video game, and some types of proprietary documents

Fair use doctrine - In certain situations, it is legal to use copyrighted material

Pirated software - The unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software

Counterfeit software - Software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such

Organizational information is intellectual capital - it must be protected 

Information security – the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization

E-business automatically creates tremendous information security risks for organizations